1. Martin-Casabona N, Bahrmand AR, Bennedsen J, et al. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: patterns of isolations. A multi-country retrospective survey.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis.. 2004;8(10):1186-1193.
2. Rushton SP, Goodfellow, M, O’Donnell AG, et al. The epidemiology of atypical mycobacterial diseases in northern England: a space-time clustering and Generalized Linear Modelling approach. Epidemiol. Infect.2007;135:765-774.
3. Adjemian J, Olivier KN, Seitz AE, et al. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease in U.S. Medicare Beneficiaries.Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185(8):881–886.
4. Lee M-R, Yang C-Y, Chang K-P, et al. Factors Associated with Lung Function Decline in Patients with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease. PLoS ONE.2013;8(3):e58214.
5. Wagner D, van Ingen J, Adjemian J, et al. Annual Prevalence and Treatment Estimates for Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease in Europe: A NTM-NET Collaborative Study. 2014, Presented at ERS Congress.
6. Van der Werf MJ, Ködmön C, Katalinić-Janković V, et al. Inventory study of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in the European Union.BMC Infectious Diseases.2014;14(62):1-9.
7. Moore JE, Kruijshaar ME, Ormerod LP, Drobniewski F, Abubakar I. Increasing reports of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1995-2006. BMC Public Health.2010;10:612.
8. Schönfeld N, et al. Empfehlungen zur Diagnostik und Therapie nichttuberkulöser Mykobakteriosen des Deutschen Zentralkomitees zur Bekämpfung der Tuberkulose (DZK) und der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin (DGP). Pneumologie.2013; 67: 605–633
9. Young JD, Balagopal A, Reddy NS, et al. Differentiating colonization from infection can be difficult.J Respir Dis.. 2007;28(1):7-18.
10. Fritscher LG, Marras TK, Bradi AC, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection as a cause of difficult-to-control asthma: a case-control study. Chest. 2011;139(1):23-7.
11. Adjemian J, Olivier KN, Prevots DR. Nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in the United States: screening practices and environmental risk. Am J Respir Crit CareMed.2014;190(5):581–586.
12. Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, et al. An Official ATS/IDSA Statement: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2007;175:367-416.
13. Griffith DE, Brown-Elliott BA, Langsjoen B, et al. Clinical and Molecular Analysis of Macrolide Resistance in Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2006;174:928-934.
14. Subcommittee of the Joint Tuberculosis Committee of the British Thoracic Society. Management of opportunist mycobacterial infections: Joint Tuberculosis Committee Guidelines 1999. Thorax.2000;55:210-218.
15. Winthrop KL, McNelley E, Kendall B, et al. Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease Prevalence and Clinical Features. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182(7):977–982.
16. Hojo M, Iikura M, Hirano S, Sugiyama H, Kobayashi N, Kudo K. Increased risk of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in asthmatic patients using long-term inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Respirology.2012;17:185-190.
17. Andréjak C, Nielsen R, Thomsen VØ, Duhaut P, Sørensen HT, Thomsen RW. Chronic respiratory disease, inhaled corticosteroids and risk of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis. Thorax.2013;68:256-262.
18. R Andres Floto, Kenneth N Olivier, Lisa Saiman et al. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis: executive summary Thorax 2016;71:88–90.
19. Mirsaeidi M, Hadid W, Ericsoussi B, Rodgers D, Sadikot RT. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease is common in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17(11):e1000-e1004.
20. Radiopaedia.org: http://radiopaedia.org/cases/right-middle-lobe-bronchiectasis-mac. Accessed April 23, 2015.
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The relationship between an NTM infection and asthma is complex. It has been demonstrated that the risk of pulmonary NTM infections is increased in difficult-to-control asthmatic patients, particularly in those who are older, have more severe airflow limitations, and receive treatment with higher doses of ICS (inhaled corticosteroids) for a longer period of time.16
COPD, has been observed worldwide in as many as 50% of all patients with NTM PD. These patients are particularly susceptible; in 2013, a population-based, case-controlled study reported that COPD may increase the risk of an NTM lung infection by 15.7 fold.17
Bronchiectasis increases susceptibility to NTM. Not only that, NTM lung infections are also likely to exacerbate the underlying bronchiectasis, making both conditions more difficult to treat.
Studies indicate that NTM is common in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. For patients with non-CF bronchiectasis, it is likely that structural changes in the airways predispose them to colonize NTM. Alterations in the host's immune response may also play a pivotal role in the development of infection. 19